It’s the explanation of the cause, the reason wich a delinquent had to commit crimes.
How to know that causes? Through the study of his/her life history, from where go: A) Basic psychological profile/individual B) Ambiental influence/sociogenesis
But, what’s the nature of this causes? Basically, they have genetic nature, ie, the subject has a certain psychological profile made by his genetic. They are also surronded by environmental stimuli, wich may trigger a criminal behavior. The criminogenesis studies both the characteristics and the intensity of the criminal conduct, considering 3 personality elements:
a) Causal b) Criminogenic index c) Criminogenic incentive: It’s the reason, the impulse to commit crimes d) Criminogenic cause: why
There is a set of the specific Crimimogenic Factors:
There are 2 parts:
*-Internal –> Endogenous –> Genes
*-External –> Exogenous –> Education and environment
So they are:
It’s the further study of the process that the subject followed until complete the criminal conduct. Obviously, first we have to determine the criminogenesis.
There is an american contemporary/surrealist artist whose work I really love. He is Vincent Cacciotti, who studied at the Art Students League in New York and The California Art Institute in Westlake , CA. He started painting as a child.
Here I show you a short presentation of his paintings , but I recommend to visit his website. You can buy his paintings.
The author says that evil is similar in nature to the disease, although this is more complex and elusive to our understanding. Its genesis reveals many pathological factors; especially psychopathological, in character, whose essence, medicine and psychology have already studied. Understanding the essence and genesis of evil generally uses information from biology, medicine and psychology. Only a philosophical reflection is clearly insufficient.
On the base of the theory of Ponerology, psychopathy (“essential psychopathy” according Lobacweski) is located.
Surely many of you have heard about this personality disorder, since it’ very fashionable “by chance”. Psychopathy is generally characterized by the uncontrolled impulsivity and inability to feel emotion and empathy of a human being. From that lack of control and inability is generated the next psychological/behavioral profile :
3. Lackof empathy
5. Need forexcitement
7.1. Adultantisocial behavior
Sounds it familiar?…
A psychopathis usuallya charming, trickster person who poses him/herself asimportant andtalented. This is howhe / shegains the trust of the people, to try becoming them dependent onhim / her,and soexploit their weaknessesto manipulate for him/her advantage;usually throughthe scam, abuse and blackmail.This kind of person likes toget intovery large, colorful andoutlandish projects, both in normal lifeand thecriminal life.
The causesof psychopathyare 3types:
A)Organic:when the brainhasinjuries, which have directly affected thelimbic system(manages physiologicalresponses toemotional stimuli) and causedthe person hasundergone apersonality disorder
B) Genetic:when the personmanifestsantisocialand deviant behaviorat an early age(childhood),without having sufferedanybrain injurydirectlyabove, and living inanormal socialenvironment.Ie, the person is bornwiththisproblem because it’sgeneticallyoriginated
C) Social: when the persongrows and developsin abnormalsocialenvironment, LimbicSystemviolento, criminal and /or ismistreatedrepeatedlyand his/her psyche“learns”the disorder,assimilating it
The psychopath isborn and made.
Objectively, in fact,the problem is alwaysorganic,because if theindividual is born withthe problem he suffers abraindefect ordeficiency(instead of“injury). And ifthe individual developsthe disorderbecause of theirsocialenvironment,brain hasdevelopedthis deficiency.
The brainis the computerofour mind andbody, so wheneverthere is amental, psychologicalor physical problem, the answer is in the brain,and geneticsbecause it is theirlanguage.
Lobaczewskidisagreewiththat psychopathyis causedby damageor deficiency inthe front of thebrain,he calls it“front characteropathy“.
The authordiscusses the“characteropathies” in the explanation of Evil.
Acharacteropathyis a pathologicalentity associated witha particularcharacter traitthat invades theconduct of the personbeyondhis will, andhinders theirsocialadaptation, capacity building, relationships …
Thebrain matterretainsunblemishednaturaland instinctiveemotionalresponsesof our species.This includes, forexample,the ability to formemotional ties with othersand empathize, iewhatLobaczewskicalledintuit apsychological situation.However, characteropathicthoughtprocessesdiffer, and are characterizedbyincreasedemotional violenceandpathological egotism. Hisconceit andself-importancenarcissisticandirregularpsychologyhave atraumatizingeffectonnormal people, diminishing muchcommon senseof his victimsto the point they whereinfected withpathological thinking. The youngeror morenaiveindividuals, can be transmittedmore easilythese traits.
Thecharacteropathiesmakemental disorders andpersonalitydisorders,and the authorstresses thatthese arethe coreof evilin humanity.
Specifically, hereditary or acquiredpsychological disordersand ignoranceof their existenceandnature are theprimary causesof evil.The magic numberof 6%seems to representthe number ofhumancarriersof genes responsiblefor biological, or whoacquiresuch disordersin the courseof his lifeevil.
This small percentageis responsible forthe vast majority ofhuman misery andcrime, andinfect others withtheir flawedworldview.
The spreadof evildoesn’t respectany limitsofrace, creedorideology.All racescarry the genes, and all schoolsof thoughtare susceptible totheir influence.Thesepathological factorsform a complex network. Onlywithin this networkcan be understood the“badenvironment“ whereall circumstancescan influencea normalpersonto commitharmful acts.
We must alwaysremember that theenvironment in whichdevelops and livesa personis essentialabout is/her behavior, thinking andpersonal resources.
According to the author, there are adeforming tendenciesof realitythat helpEviltriumphsamong us:
1. Emotional reactions: often little appropriate
2. Moralizing interpretation: we make moral judgments, as if our thinking were the best
3. Interpretation corrective christic: its richer psychological worldview, normal people often trivialize glaring errors and project their own understanding of the work of someone who lacks such skills
4. Reflection of self-protection: we identify quickly as a threat to others and apply a moral judgment
5. Normal Psychological Types
6. Lack of universality: we live our lives with only emotional thinking and the pursuit of happiness, but these tools are insufficient when we’re dealing with psychopathology
7. Egotism and natural worldview: some people with a highly developed natural vision of psychological, social and moral aspects tend to overvalue their own worldview, seeing it as an objective basis for judging others. While this is the least pernicious form of egotism, based on humanistic principles, the refusal to admit the possibility of error can have an oppressive effect on contractionary measures against macrosocial disease.
But, Ialways end upwondering: what is the reality?
LobacweskiexplainsHisterodialcycle of humansociety:
The keyis in the “pursuit of happiness” of the human being from thebeginning of time. Humansbegan toexploit animalsand their environment,and then totheir human companions.Theywerethe seeds of sufferingand inequality, so good timesbecamebad.The issueis that knowledgelearnedin bad timesleads to the creationof good timesagain,and the cycleis repeated.
When timesare good,the perceptionof truth, understanding what ahealthyhuman personalityand its dynamics, ceases to be the highest priority, thenit ceases tobe understood andfinally disappears.So thesearch for truthis considered apointlessactivityfor the same reasonthat they are “good times”. A deep understandingcan become “old fashioned” or even can be neglected.
This iswhat is happening, and that’s verydangerous.
In the genesisof Evilthe most important causeis the interaction oftwohuman factors:
a)Normal humanignoranceand weakness
b) Theexistence and action ofa smallbut extremelyactive group ofpsychologicallydeviant individuals
The ignorance ofthe existence of suchpsychological differencesis the firstponerogenesiscriterionbecausethis ignorancecreates acrack through whichsuchindividuals can actunnoticed.
Sean Penn won the Oscar for best actor in 2004 for the Clint Eastwood movie Mystic River. The other nominees were Jude Law (Cold Mountain), Ben Kingsley (House of Sand and Fog), Bill Murray (Lost in Translation) and Johnny Depp (Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl). At the time of the Oscars I had seen and enjoyed all the films, Lost in Translation being my favourite, and my Pick for Best Picture and Best director, but that’s a story for another day. I think I would have been happy for any one of the actors to have won, but something deep down in me wanted Depp to win. It was his first nomination with two more to follow soon after; Finding Neverland in 2005 and Sweeney Todd in 2008. My disillusionment with the Oscars was at its hight at this time, the previous year they had handed…
A great actor can play anyone, even if it means playing two characters that seem similar in some respects but are actually the opposite of each other in big and small ways. I’ve come up with a list of 10 actors who have pulled off this feat.
This post was inspired by a comment by my friend O Poderoso Chofer, another excellent blogger. He’s awesome, and I really appreciate this idea because I’ve had a lot of fun writing this article.
Ponerology: it’s a new science which analyzes “evil”, its origin, nature and causes on Humanity.
Who developedthis science?
The psychiatrist Andrzej Łobaczewski (Poland). Specifically, this scienceis an interdisciplinary studyof the causes ofsocialinjusticeperiods, ie, periods of oppression against human population (war of aggression, genocide, ethnic cleansing, police states). HerePsychology,Psychopathology, History, Sociology and Philosophyareinvolved.
Wherewas conductedthe investigation?
Czechoslovakiaand Hungaryduring the yearsbeforethe institutionof communism.
So, the authordissectsthe psychological profileof the“people” who come to powerand becomehardauthoritarian leaders, as well as psychopathological processesor mental illnesses thatare related tothe types of evil behaviorandevilthoughts, which are completelydissociated fromthe unit, collaboration, coexistenceand originalhuman feelings.
With very few exceptionsthrough theages, discussions of moralphilosophy(the studyof right conduct) have failed tosystematically investigatethe origin, natureand the courseof evilin a manner free of supernaturalimaginings.Evilwasoften regardedas something tobe sufferedandenduredrather thansomething that could beunderstood andeliminated byrational measures.
The author talks about the “happy times” and “unhappy times” that are alternated in societies, and healso talks about theterm “pathocracy” which means “A system of government created bya smallpathologicalminoritywhotake overa society ofnormal people“.
It’s a cloudy day. I see the city from the sky, and I’m flying, but I don’t feel my body.
I don’t know that city and I don’t know that landscape. Suddenly I find myself in a building, and I’m looking out the window.
I see in the distance a plane flying very low, and I scream because that plane falls very close to my building, but my shout isn’t heard.
I instinctively jumped back, but I just know because I see it, I really don’t feel my body. I only feel my intense emotions and all the fear and the desire to survive that I can hold inside.
The building leans to one side, and begins to fall. I see it fall, and I can’t go out and fly. I can only see my mobile phone. I pick it up and try to call someone. I think about goodbye . “No need to keep fighting, you know …”. I keep trying to move in and leave the building.
Suddenly I appear in the streets of another city. People are dressed from another era, perhaps 1940 or earlier.
My mother is with me, and I’m totally confused. I ask her what are we doing there. She says me we are shopping. But, we’re not talking in words. We walked into a store. We are in a hurry.
What a paradox pretend survive without body.
That‘s whythey are called“nightmares” because you feelthe same ashavingbody.Youdon’t feelfree.
But …Nightmares arejust a dream,because lifeis too.
Maybe, ifyou’re not apsychologist, psychiatrist, sociologist, researcher or student, you’veneverheardof “learned helplessness”. Don’t worry,because you are intheright place and time.
Our mindis a super reactivecomputer, so itreacts(we react) to all environments, circumstances, events, energy and external information, ie, reacts tothe‘stimulus’. Theseexternalstimuli provokecertainreactions, throughour perception, andtrigger differentpsychological phenomenain responseeitherto solve, flee,fight ordefend. Yes, that’s the life on the Earth.
Psychological phenomenaare groups ofcertain reactionsto these stimuli, resulting ina behavior.Whena personsomething happens, whether goodor bad, it’s usually detected in his/her behavior.
Learned helplessnessis justa psychological phenomenon which presents the following behavior:
Passive behaviorin situations, environments, or adversecircumstances in life although there are realopportunities to changethesesituations or problems; avoiding unpleasantcircumstances , orobtainingpositive rewards. Learned helplessnesstranslates intoan absolutelyevasivebehavior againstcomplications, because the subject fleesproblems,evade,interposinga shield of excuses, which have oftenvictimnature.
Thispsychological phenomenoncan be easilyinduced, or simplycaused bystressful and negative situationsfor a long time.
SELIGMAN, in 1967, madethe “Theory of learned helplessness” from the studyin dogs, the effects of a series of INEVITABLEelectricshocks, with no possibilityof escape, and thenanother seriesof AVOIDABLEelectricalshocks, with the possibility ofescape.The result?Dogsfailedto learn toescapeand avoidshocks. The authorshowed thatthe reason forthis phenomenonwas dueto uncontrollabilityof the originalshocksusing an experimentaldesign called“triadic design”, based on 2stages. This designallows isolating theeffects ofuncontrollable consequencesof the effects ofcontrollability, this is precisely thetrick.
In the experimentthere are 3groups of subjects:
1.Pretreatment:theescapablegroup is exposedtoaversive consequencesthat can be controlledby the subjects(contingent reinforcement). TheInescapablegroup isexposed to the sameaversive consequencesbut has nopossibilityto control(non-contingent reinforcement). Controlgroupundergoesthis phase.
2. Proof: all subjectsare exposedto atest taskin whichthe testsare relatedcontingentlywith some responseof subjects, so the consequences areCONTROLLABLEfor ALLsubjects.
Then, learned helplessnessis verified whethersubjects of INESCAPABLE groupshow aDEFICITin the response(reaction) ESCAPE-AVOIDANCE inthe testing phase, compared to the other two groups. Thelearned helplessnesstheoryposits thatorganisms exposed toa situationof uncontrollabilityshow later deficitsin learningsuccess responses(solutions) .
A)Motivational: delay inthe initiation ofvoluntary responses, ie, the subject doesn’t believethat their responsesaffectthe consequences, so it stopsissuing them.
B) Cognitive:belief inthe ineffectivenessof their responsesto control the consequencesthat hindersthe learning oflater success.
C) Emotional*:a series of characteristicbehavioral andphysiological disorders,ina stateof anxiety and fearfollowed by depression, occur when the consequencesinthe pre–treatment are sufficientlyaversive.
The emotional deficit is the most serious because it’s the most harmful in the psyche, emotional integrity is paramount in good mental health.
There are other effects following exposure to uncontrollable shocks worth mentioning here:
– Reduction of aggressiveness and competitiveness
– Conditioning of high levels of fear neutral stimuli rigged to shock
– Increased stress symptoms (for example: ulcers)
– Changes in the levels of cortisol and neurotransmitters like norepinephrine
In short, learned helplessness is a person experiencing the consequences and his/her behavior are independent, ie, uncontrollable , so he/she forms an expectation that there will be no contingency response-consequence in the future.
When a person perceives that the situations are uncontrollable, makes a causal attribution, ie the reason for this uncontrollability. The causal attribution has 3 areas:
1. Internal-External: causes of self or circumstances. If the cause is attributed to self, self-esteem is destroyed.
2. Stable-Unstable: constant or time varying causes. If adverse situations are persistent, learned helplessness becomes chronic.
3. Global-Specific: General causes in different situations, or a particular situation.
In addition helplessness can be:
– Universal: a person who believes that their responses are not contingent with the desired effect and that no other subject has these responses, ie, believes the solution is simply “impossible”. This person attributes the cause to external, specific and unstable factors. The helplessness does not generalize.
– Personal: a person who believes he has the answers but others have them, ie, believes that “can not”. The person attributes the cause to internal, stable and global factors. The helplessness is chronic and widespread.
The theory of learned helplessness has been proposed as an explanatory model of human depression because the symptoms can be induced by treatment with helplessness.
NOT ALL IS LOST…
The good news is that learned helplessness can be overridden. This is done by first submitting the subject to a successful escape learning with which he/she can escape a shock through an escape response. This equates to immunize against defenseless.
The learned helplessness model postulates that emotion and motivation are shaped by the environment, so directly affects education. The cause of learned helplessness are past experiences, so it is important the infant stage of a person, because that is what will set your mind. If a child in his/her environment, others do not stop tell him/her he/she is worthless, silly and they assault him/her, that’s how he/she will feel to the world and in the future. However, if the others support the child, and they say him/her that he/she is valuable, and he/she is good and can do everything he/she porposes successfully , this child will be brave, motivated, optimistic and confident. It’s simple.
The attitude of a child or an adult to his own helplessness or ability domain is based on child development. For learning domain, is essential that the mother act so responsive, because the absence of the mother, deprivation and unresponsive stimulate maternal behavior contribute to the learning of uncontrollability.
Finally, if you have ever felt that way, or you feel that way now, you should know that there is a SOLUTION. You are not alone! Stop thinking so, and stop believing that you are a victim, because in reality you are a human being with rights, and secondly, you’re a survivor.
“This isn’treal.You’re notreal.You‘re nobody. Your thoughtsaren’t true.Yourunderstandingisn’t correct, becauseit’s based onsomething thatdoesn’t exist.You have nothing. What you seeisonlya scenewithout meaning.Nothing around you have meaning. The countriesdon’t exist.The lawseither.Theinformation is untrue, it’s not information.”
But…Whyputall that inthis book?–Aliciathoughtandcontinued reading.
“Because freedomdoesn’t exist.Because there areonly feelings, and you, soul, for some mysterious reasonyou’re here,now, totallyalone with them. So theyareall youshould care. So vibrate, without being bad, without being good, as hard as you can, through your feelings, and maybe, you will return to your origin.
But never, never give up.
Matter is justmatter.”
…the soulis everything – Alice said closing the book.
Can thefamily neglectdestroy psychologically a person?
What is the behaviorof a personpsychologicallydestroyed?
According to astudy conductedin 2002at the University ofMálaga (Spain) on The psychologicalimpact of familyneglectin a group ofchildren, family neglect,completelyparalyzes anddelaysthe psycheof children.
Negligencemeansindifference.When a humanbeing manifestsindifference toanother human being, makes an impressionon his mind,and ifthis indifferenceis prolonged, it causesapsychological andsocial consequenceseventually. Thisis intensified whenthe person sufferingthe indifference of othersis a child.
The mind of achild is verytender, soft, premature.The mind of achild is verymalleable, and what thecast,in this world, is his environment.His closestand most influentialenvironment is thefamily.What a childlives intheir home is hispersonalitymold. Thehome environmentis the recipient ofthe human psychematuring.
– Abandoned childrenpresent more problems ,and more severe, between 5 and6 yearsold.
– These children havelower cognitive performance, areanxious, distracted, unmotivated, can’t dotheir homeworkwithout help from theteacher,are sociallywithdrawn,dependent andhavea permanent state ofanger.
– Abandoned childrenphysicallypresentexternalizingbehaviors such asaggression, hyperactivity and distractibility, while physicallyabused childrenexhibitinternalizingbehaviorssuch as anxiety, obsession compulsion, inhibition, unpopularityanddestruction.
– Thefamily neglectdestabilizes thepolicy development in thecognitive, linguisticand social levels, causing fear and anxietyinchildren fromanyeveryday situation, even if it waspositive.
– Abused children have a delayedcognitive developmentand academic performance.
The study bythe University ofMálaga (Spain),revealsthat children whowere victimsof seriousfamily neglectmanifestlower overalladaptation,and loweracademicperformance againstchildrenwho sufferedslightnegligence.
In addition, these children haveapoorergeneraladaptive characteristics, they work and learn less, they areless happyand behaveinappropriately.They livein a worldfar removed from reality, they don’t knowhowto behavesociallyforacceptanceof others, they aren’t adapted tocorrectsituationsoutside theirfamily.These children arerejected by theirhigh levels ofunpopularity, hyperactivity,pre-delinquent behaviorand hardnessin his personality.
So, children who sufferedserious familyneglectmanifestvery differentpathological behaviorsascriminal behavior, hardness, hyperactivity, unpopularityandexternalizingbehaviors.
There is no doubtthat familyneglect isthe most serious, becausesociallyand humanlyit’s themost damaging.
Childrenare peoplein society. Thesepeople grow upand becomewhotheir experiences havetaught them to be.
A childalwaysneeds someone toteachhim,someone who isat his side,not only toprotect himfromeverything, becauseoverprotectisbad too, but to be heard.Humans aresocial beings, ie, they needsocial relationstodevelop and live. Ifa small humanis deprivedofthat, he can’t develop, and he will bedeficient inmany respects.